(A) Vascular Surgery :
Vascular surgery is a specialty of surgery in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries and veins, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures, and surgical reconstruction. The specialty evolved from general and cardiac surgery as well as minimally invasive techniques pioneered by interventional radiology. Early leaders of the field included Russian surgeon Nikolai Korotkov, noted for developing early surgical techniques, American interventional radiologist Charles Theodore Dotter who is credited with inventing minimally invasive angioplasty, and Australian Robert Paton, who helped the field achieve recognition as a specialty. Edwin Wylie of San Francisco was one of the early American pioneers who developed and fostered advanced training in vascular surgery and pushed for its recognition as a specialty in the United States in the 1970s. The vascular surgeon is trained in the diagnosis and management of diseases affecting all parts of the vascular system except that of the heart and brain. Cardiothoracic surgeons manage surgical disease of the heart and its vessels. Neurosurgeons and interventional neuroradiologists manage surgical disease of the vessels in the brain (e.g., intracranial aneurysms).
(B) Endo-Vascular Surgery :
Endovascular Neurosurgery is a specialty that uses minimally invasive procedures to diagnose and treat vascular disorders of the brain and spine.
In general these disorders are treated either by closing (embolization) or opening (recanalization) the abnormal vessels. Many disorders that previously needed more invasive neurosurgery can be treated with these techniques. This minimally invasive approach can be beneficial to patients as this procedure has been found to reduce post-operative pain, minimizes scarring, facilitate rehabilitation, and allows for a quicker return to normal activities.
The following is a list of diseases and conditions typically treated by endovascular neurosurgeon.
- STROKE – acute intra-arterial thrombolysis or thrombectomy
- Cerebral aneurysm
- Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
- Carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF)
- Dural arteriovenous fistula
- STENTING OR ANGIOPLASTY for Intracranial atherosclerosis
- STENTING OR ANGIOPLASTY for Extracranial (brachiocephalic) atherosclerosis
- EMBOLIZATION FOR Extracranial (head and neck) and Para spinal vascular malformations
- Head and neck tumors
- Juvenile nasopharyngeal tumor
- EMBOLIZATION FOR Spinal vascular malformations
- Traumatic vascular lesions